Literature Mod B essay How do speeches highlight the significance of language and learning as a means bringing about social change? Only a text with a congruence of form, features and ideological representation is capable of transcending the standards of eras, by continuing to resonate with newer audiences within differing contexts. Texts, such as speeches, become an immovable, united entity which can not merely resist the unstoppable force of time through the use coherent use of form and language which produces a coalesced whole in terms of meaning and value. By developing a relationship between the real world of the audience and an alternative, yet improved world, the speaker is able to effectively foster the acceptance of new ideas and values. As each of these speakers weaves reality with the imagined, it becomes apparent that their speeches compellingly communicate deeply held beliefs to their audiences. This is present in both Margaret Atwood's 1994 speech “Spotty Handed Villainesses and Doris Lessing's 2007 acceptance On Not Winning the Nobel Prize. Each of which call upon the role that literature and the imagination play in inspiring a future founded upon injustice and individual opportunity. This reveals not only the speaker's didactic vision characterised by empowerment of the individual, but their faith in the audience's capacity to transform their vision into reality. A speech can create active social change by preaching individual opportunity, through address the key aspects of rhetorical mechanisms which enact on the human condition. Margaret Atwood's “spotty handed villainesses” is an epideictic and almost commemorative speech on women's equality for opportunity in literature which accrues enough integrity in its technical form and moreover its exploration of meaning to exceed its immediate context to resonate contemporarily. Beginning with an intertextual reference to the children rhyme “There was a little girl who had a little curl”, Atwood establishes both the pervading cultural reliance to categorize female behaviour (angel/ whore) and the allure of that behaviour. Through this rhetorical technique, she in turn encourages her audience to consider the role of female ‘bad behaviour’ in literature, and its relevance to the real world. This point is strengthened by her use of personal anecdote, in which she recalls that her “older brother used this to tease her, however he only managed to make very good sound almost horrid”. This henceforth illustrates Atwood's critique on the restricting presentation of women in fiction and its effect in reducing individual opportunity realistically. In doing so, she effectively calls upon her past and current fiction, to use both as a critical presentation on the failures of the second-wave feminist movement in addressing the consequences of restricting the roles and opportunity of women in popular fiction and in society. This is lastly confirmed by her belief in the aphorism ‘create a flawless character and you create an insufferable one’, and it's this belief which formed the basis of her argument on the “tenancy to cookie cut” female characters. Through this humorous rendering of cookie cut characters, she successfully appeals to the audience's pathos through humour and demonstrates a very serious concern, that such real world parochialism causes the writer to feel her choices for females opportunities in fiction are restricted. This invariably in turn influences readers, inevitably resulting in a perpetuation of those in the same parochial attitudes. In this way Atwood emphasises the relationship between the real and the unreal through the medium of literature to communicate a powerful critique of the shortcomings of second wave feminism in the 1960’s in addressing the lack of female character opportunity and changing society.